Úsáideoir:Marcas.oduinn/Foilsithe/Forainmneacha/180611

Ón Vicífhoclóir, an foclóir ábhair shaor.
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Ní díochlaonta per se na forainmneacha pearsanta, ach tá foirmeacha áirithe acu.

  • The first person plural has alternative forms (based on sinn and muid).
  • The second person singular may lenite when used objectively (but is subject to the dntls rule).
  • Third person pronouns drop their initial s when used with the copula, and objectively.
  • Emphatic forms add suffices.

Treoir mhearthagartha[cuir in eagar]

The summary table shows the following forms for the personal pronouns:

  • an copail is: Is é.
  • briathra anailíseacha:
  • emphasis: Is mise
    • -sa: mise, tusa, sise, sibhse
    • -san: (s)eisean, (s)iadsan
    • -ne: sinne, muidne
  • possessive pronouns, not declined.
  • example synthetic, for standard and dialect/archaic declensions.
Uimhir agus pearsa Copail Anailíseach Emphatic Possessive [1] Example Synthetic[2]
subject [3] object [4] copula analytic standard dialect
Uatha 1d mise moL, m' [5] -im -im
2a thú tusa doL, d' [5] - -ir
3ú fir é [6] é eisean seisean aL - -idh
3ú bain í í ise sise aH
3ú neo ea [7] -
Iolra 1d sinn [8] sinn sinne árN -imid -imid
muid muid muidne
sibh [8] sibh sibhse bhurN - -tí
iad siad iad iadsan siadsan aN - -id

Sanasaíocht[cuir in eagar]

The etymology table shows how Irish pronouns derive, in whole or in part, from the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European pronouns Teimpléad:l, Teimpléad:l and Teimpléad:l.

Pronoun form Middle Irish [9] Old Irish Proto-Celtic PIE
form root
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l? [rfi 1] Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l + Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l [ep 1]
Teimpléad:l [10] Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l [11] Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l [12]
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l [13] Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l [14]
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l[rfi 2]
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l [15]
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l [16] Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l [14]
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l [rfi 3] Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l [ep 2] Teimpléad:l [rfi 4] Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:lL [ep 3] Teimpléad:lL [ep 4] Teimpléad:l [17] Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:lH [ep 3] Teimpléad:lH [ep 4] Teimpléad:l [18] Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l [rfi 5] Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l
Teimpléad:lN [ep 3] Teimpléad:lN [ep 4] Teimpléad:l [19] Teimpléad:l Teimpléad:l

Notaí[cuir in eagar]

  1. Using the /L H N/ notation to indicate triggering of lenition, aspiration and eclipsis (for which /E/ may also be seen).
  2. Active indicative present, slender. Of these forms, besides the standard first person, only the second singular may be heard today. For other tenses, see for example dialect forms on Nualeargais.
  3. Also conjunctive.
  4. Also disjunctive.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Elision occurs before vowels and lenited f: m'iníon, d'fhear céile.
  6. Not to be confused with Is é...> 'Sé....
  7. The last remaining neuter form in Irish, akin to English Teimpléad:l.
  8. 8.0 8.1 There was an older form without the copular s.
  9. Entries for Middle Irish are given only if they differ significantly from Old Irish.
  10. Obsolete spelling eadh.
  11. This is the emphatic form.
  12. Synthetic ending re-analysed as a pronoun.
  13. Reduplicated form of Teimpléad:l.
  14. 14.0 14.1 The Old Irish form is the same as the 3rd sg m, Teimpléad:l.
  15. Messe ocus Pangur Bán....
  16. Dissimilated from the Proto-Celtic.
  17. The final vowel triggers lenition.
  18. The final -s triggers h-prothesis.
  19. The final nasal triggers eclipsis.

Etymology pointers[cuir in eagar]

  1. Etymology 2 in this entry.
  2. Etymology 3 in this entry.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Etymology 1 in this entry.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Etymology 3 in this entry.

Teimpléid Vicífhoclóra[cuir in eagar]

Naisc sheachtracha[cuir in eagar]

Féach freisin[cuir in eagar]


Category:Irish appendices - Pronouns
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